A study in Finland looked at the relationship between a child’s temperament and a mother’s parenting style. The results showed that:
- A child who showed less positive emotion was more likely to have a mother with low maternal affection.
- Children who scored high levels of negative emotion were more likely to have mothers who were more psychologically and behaviorally controlling.
- A mother that perceives her child as more active with less positive emotion was more likely to score lower on overall well-being and more likely to be more controlling.
Abstract: Child’s Difficult Temperament and Mothers’ Parenting Styles, Journal of Child and Family Studies
Researchers followed 4-year-olds for 10 years, observing their interactions with mothers and its effect on the child’s weight. Specifically, the researchers were interested 1) the children’s compliance with what the mothers wanted them to eat, 2) the child’s eating of foods that were initially refused, and 3) the amount of food choices allowed by the mothers. The findings:
- Daughters who complied with what the mother wanted them to eat and who ate foods that were initially refused (after the mother’s prompting) “most of the time” were significantly more likely to become overweight.
- Similar factors did not predict weight gain for boys.
- The mother’s obesity predicted weight problems for both boys and girls.
Abstract: Compliant Eating of Maternally Prompted Food Predicts Increased Body Mass Index z-Score Gain in Girls: Results from a Population-Based Sample, Childhood Obesity
Having an index finger that is significantly shorter than the ring finger has been associated with higher levels of testosterone. Researchers showed that this ratio of digits is related to higher levels of aggressive behavior in females. Also,
- High levels of emotional intelligence are associated with a lower likelihood of aggressive behavior
- an authoritarian parenting style is more predictive of aggression in the female children of those parents
Abstract: Digit ratio, emotional intelligence and parenting styles predict female aggression, Personality and Individual Differences